Dove's Guide for Church Bell Ringers

Scope, Conventions, Abbreviations, etc

This webpage aims to explain what can be found within this and other pages of the Dove website (and therefore the careful reader can infer what is not included). It describes the layout conventions and points to associated pages dealing with distinct facets of the data. Those data are now held not simply as the text of a book but within a database. Please carefully read what follows, and do so before you jump to any conclusion about the entries. Moreover because the data we present are regularly being updated, do please check just before submitting any corrections that you have in mind so as to be certain that 'your correction' hasn't been submitted by someone else and is now already included. The date on which any Dove webpage was last amended is shown in its lower rh corner, under "page last modified". Also, before you e-mail us with a comment or question, please check to see whether the issue has been addressed on our FAQs page.

During the period 1950 to 1994, the late Mr R H Dove produced eight editions of his Bellringer's Guide to the Church Bells of Britain and Ringing Peals of the World which became known colloquially as Dove's Guide or simply Dove. After publication of the 8th edition, he handed over responsibility for its continuance to the Central Council of Church Bell Ringers.

Dove entered the computer era soon after the 6th edition was published in 1982 when John Baldwin arranged for each tower's details to be captured on a punched card (ie, in just 80 characters). Following further developments, with John's son Sid providing invaluable technical assistance and with Ron Johnston as consultant and co-worker, Dove first appeared on the internet in late 1998 with the 9th edition appearing in print in 2000.

Tim Jackson joined the team shortly afterwards with John and Tim becoming the first 'Stewards of the Dove Database' from 2007 until 2017. The most recent printed edition, the 11th, was published in December 2018 under the editorship of John, Tim, and Ron, and is available from Central Council Publications. An errata document (PDF format) for that edition is available on this website.

This work continues to be undertaken on behalf of the Council by the 'Dove Stewards' (currently Doug Davis, Tim Jackson, Dickon Love and Tim Pett), with John Baldwin acting as Dovemaster while a replacement Dove database is being developed by Richard Smith.

As a continuing service to the Exercise, the accompanying A - Z listings show the current situation and they are laid out very much as in the printed book version of Dove's Guide. We have divided it into one section per (initial) letter of the alphabet in order to keep page sizes reasonable and to reduce loading time. Any entry with change(s) of significance from the most recent printed edition is indicated as such by being prefixed with the date of its latest amendment. A page of updates and, linked from it, a file giving more precise details of the changes made in the recent past, each of them ordered retrospectively by date of amendment, is also provided for those who wish to keep track of what is a constantly changing situation.

Also available, and probably more useful, is our search facility whereby one can locate entries by their place name, by county, or within a certain radius of a grid reference. The data for that search is a subset of the same database from which the main listings are derived - so the two sets of data show precisely the same information. Postcode searches are also available. The underlying database contains many "fields" of information for each "record" stored, one record for each ring of bells. From that data we also make available a downloadable County Lists PDF document which includes a summary table of all rings and unringables.

Note that a search will attempt to locate the requested word(s) within the entirety of the tower entries and not just placenames, so that it is possible to search on commonly used words or phrases such as 'unringable', 'anti-clockwise', 'hung dead', 'alternates with', and the like ... (but starting at the beginning of words, so do not search for 'ernates' rather than 'alternates'). Also, beware of unwittingly searching for a word that occurs frequently, such as 'ring'!

The description below indicates what is shown and the abbreviations and conventions used. In general, wherever green text appears within these webpages it indicates a clickable link to an associated webpage or feature.

Corrections, errors, etc

New entries and amendments to existing data (bearing in mind the caveats included below in the paragraph headed Accuracy) should be notified by e-mail using the Dovemaster link provided for this purpose at the bottom lh corner of every webpage on this site. In order that a machine searchable record can be kept of all such alterations, please do NOT submit them by telephone or by post.

We ask that, upon receiving our response to your e-mail and awaiting a consequential build and upload of the webpages which are created from the amended database (rarely more than 24 hours unless a News item indicates a known interruption to our service), you carefully check that we have incorporated the changes you have offered, unless - of course - our response indicates a reason not so to do.


Because the content and detail of the entries are continually changing, the compilation date is shown.


All towers containing rings of 3 or more bells with a tenor weight of at least ½ cwt can be found using the search facility (unless a search constraint implies otherwise). Those with 4 or more appear in the alphabetical listings pages, and a separate supplementary page shows 3-bell rings. Rings with a tenor weight of less than ½ cwt are not included nor are sets of bells hung for chiming only unless there is also a ring housed within the same building. Ringers who have a special interest in lightweight rings are referred to Michael Williams's webpage for a list of such rings.

Place names

All rings are shown in alphabetical order by place name, location (e.g. county or state) and dedication Spaces are treated as significant (thus East Hoathly is listed before Easthampstead). Cathedrals are listed ahead of other towers in a given place. There are NO added entries; thus Hull is shown under its full name of Kingston upon Hull and, although one can find a result when searching for Hull, it is not returned as a separate or distinct entry. This means that there are as many towers as there are entries in the list. The search facility may be useful for 'finding' towers which are apparently 'missing' from what some may feel is their rightful position because they may be known by a different name or listed under a nearby conurbation. With a very few exceptions (confined mainly to 'traditional names', and used either locally, nationally, or ecclesiastically within the Exercise for certain towers) we use the place name as found on a current Ordnance Survey 1:50,000 scale (Landranger) map.

It may be helpful to elaborate our rationale as to why, in general, we do NOT show hyphens; this is for the pragmatic reason that a search (unless well thought out and carefully presented) may actually not produce an expected result. For example, in placenames including the strings -on- or -upon- or -in-the- the succeeding word might be a perfectly reasonable one to search upon, but the presence of the hyphen immediately preceding it (rather than a space) inhibits the location of that word. Wales is somewhat of an exception, where the presentation of placenames seems to vary quite unpredictably and so we have chosen, in general, to prefer the OS Landranger map version.


We have attempted to make the dedication of each church accurate and consistent in presentation, noting that the dedication (usually) does NOT change when another church in the same parish or benefice is closed or made redundant (even though the benefice name may well then change). Often it is the case that commonly-used dedications are local variants. In contrast, we attempt to use the official version. For Church of England churches we treat the latest edition of Crockford's Clerical Directory as being the authoritative reference.


For England we show places under their "Lord Lieutenant" county names - and that means that we use both the county of Greater London and, as distinct from it, the City of London. For Wales and Scotland, we now use - by request - Local Government "county names". For Northern Ireland we continue to use the traditional county names. Further information is available on a separate page.

Number of bells

We show the maximum number of ringing bells in the ring tuned to a diatonic scale. (We have discontinued showing rings of 12 which also have an extra treble as 'a ring of 13' because such did not generally find favour among ringers.) "Accidentals" are named with reference to the number of the bell that they usually replace.

Tenor weights, notes, and nominals

Weights are given as precisely as possible as cwt-qr-lb (fractions of a pound are ignored - on the basis that the bell DOES weigh the lower amount but DOES NOT weigh the higher one) and when shown simply as cwt (and, possibly, fraction thereof) this indicates approximation / estimation. The search facility allows for the presentation of results in metric units or, as preferred by US ringers, simply in lb - and in both cases where we have only an approximate tenor weight, it is shown prefaced by a tilde character (~) and is rounded to the nearest multiple of 10 units.

Where they have been ascertained, tenor notes are shown (relative to International standard pitch, A=440Hz, unless indicated otherwise). Accidentals are shown as follows: sharp: #; flat: b; double sharp: x; double flat: d. Also, and only on the details page (accessible via the search facility), where we have been advised of it, the tenor nominal is shown. We recommend Bill Hibbert's webpage for further information about strike note, partials, the nominal, and the pitch of a bell, and Nigel Taylor's webpage, particularly in the section entitled "Church Bells", for a discussion of tuning and temperament.

Tuning of a ring

A "ring" normally comprises a set of bells tuned to a diatonic scale with the tenor as keynote. As one moves up in pitch from the tenor to the treble in a "standardly-tuned" ring, the interval between the pitch of two successive bells follows the sequence TTSTTTSTTSTTTS..., where T stands for a tone interval and S for a semitone. (On a keyboard instrument, such as a piano, the white keys for the notes C and D are "separated" by a black key, whereas another adjacent pair of white keys, E and F have no intervening black key. Thus the interval between C and D is a tone, and that between E and F a semitone.) It happens sometimes that a ring clearly does not conform to this standard and where possible we have attempted to describe the variation by comparison with a "standard" ring of bells. We use a phrase such as "tuning: 1-5 of 6" (whereas the "standard" tuning for a ring of 5 would be 2-6 of 6). Such descriptions MUST at best be considered as approximate for it is rarely the case that they are a deliberate intention of a bell tuner: they simply are an attempt to describe more clearly what is perceived as contrasted with using a very general and not so specific a phrase such as 'non-diatonic tuning' which often can be considered a euphemism for 'not well in tune'.

Bell Details

In almost all instances, we now also have a table showing further details about individual bells (and not necessarily confined to the ring itself). Those few rings where the details of individual bells are still missing (usually only the case of a newly installed ring where details are not yet to hand) are identified by (M) which is prefixed to any GF or toilet indication (see below).

Ground Floor rings

Churches at which ringing takes place without the need to ascend tower stairs are indicated by the abbreviation (GF).

Presence of a Simulator

Towers which possess a simulator (and about which we have been told) are indicated by the abbreviation (S).

Toilet facilities

Where toilet facilities are available for use by ringers the abbreviation (T) is used, if necessary, appended to any (S or GF) indication (see above).

Practice nights

In editions 1-8 of Dove, more and more elaborate variations appeared describing the occurrence of practice ringing. The listing was dramatically simplified in the 9th edition using a three letter abbreviation, eg: Tue modified possibly by a + or - sign to indicate deviation from weekly regularity. We now note consistent, and simple, predictable variations from this norm but limiting the range of possibilities for any particular entry. Those who offer amendments are asked to recognise the problems that have arisen with regard to the presentation of practice night information and to limit their description of deviations to the simple phrases already in use and remembering that 'alt' is nowhere near so helpful as is, for example, '1st&3rd'. Towers with really complicated variations are encouraged to use a website of their own to provide a further explanation and details of a contact person of whom enquiries can be made. Practice time is normally 19:30 until 21:00. Starts differing from 19:30 by 30 minutes or more are shown on the 24hr clock system. It is not only polite but also wise to contact the captain before joining another tower's practice. An affiliated society's secretary, probably shown on its website, will usually be able to help with a contact telephone number but, if the tower has its own website and we know about it, a URL (and one not exceeding 70 characters in length) is another possible contact route.

Where we have been informed of straightforward 'practice sharing' arrangements between two or more towers (such as particular weeks of a month) we have attempted to indicate what that arrangement is. This will continue to be shown even when one of the participating towers is, for example, undergoing restoration - a circumstance which inhibits the showing of that tower's own practice information in the on-line version of Dove but not in the printed version.

It is the custom in most towers for a practice NOT to be held during Holy Week (ie, the week preceding Easter Day).

It has been suggested that it might be helpful if we could indicate where there is "no regular ringing", ie, neither a practice nor Sunday service ringing. Where this flag now appears it indicates that there is absolutely no point in trying to find out what pattern there is of Sunday ringing (eg, via an affiliated association website) - and that's in addition to there being no regular practice. The implication is that there is no local band as such, nor any peripatetic band which comes with any predictability in that sort of role. It is also saying that "although these bells are not officially unringable, the only way you can expect to get a ring here is to organise your own visit, or hope for an open day or await an association meeting". So, if there is service ringing on the 'nth Sunday of the month', even if that sometimes doesn't happen - and we all know the range of reasons that there may be for it not happening - then this flag is NOT appropriate. We invite those who know for certain that "no regular ringing" is the case at any particular tower to inform us of the fact.

Additional data

Dove has traditionally shown extra information about any specially interesting feature of a tower or ring. We now restrict the amount of such extra information not least because of the capability of visiting towers' individual websites where that information can be spelt out in much greater detail. A link to a website (its 'URL') is shown where we have been informed of it unless - possibly on further investigation - we find that a further 'login' is necessary on the part of the user (which we deem inappropriate for 'general use'). A regular check is made to ensure that that website is still extant and, where the check fails, we amend our database so as to remove the URL. That removal is usually included in the detailed changes list, and it is done without notifying the tower concerned. Therefore as and when a tower's webpage URL is changed, the onus is on the tower's webmaster to inform us of the revised URL. If the tower has a page on more than one website (eg, its own, plus one under its affiliated society's umbrella), then we ask that the relevant tower captain let us know which they would prefer us to show. We cannot show URLs that exceed 70 characters in length.

It is suggested that a tower which has a presence in the 'social networking' arena (such as Facebook, or Twitter) provides - and keeps accurate - a link to that facility on their own website: we do not plan to provide a parallel set of addresses for that aspect of communication. Any 'tower announcements' which are made within such postings should not be assumed to trigger a consequential change to a ring's Dove entry: it is stressed that the compilers of Dove put the primary onus of letting us know about such a change (and its cessation) directly on the tower itself, preferably by email using the Dovemaster link provided on every Dove page. Other routes are treated as being potentially 'unreliable' or 'incomplete' and we far prefer to have direct contact with someone in authority in the tower concerned and thus ask that any such communication be specific as to the status of the informer with regard to that tower.

We continue to use the expression used originally by Ron Dove himself of referring to "the heaviest ring of n bells" using the tenor weight alone as the yardstick for that comparison (as contrasted with the total weight of all bells comprising the ring).

Grid References

Any person not familiar with the method of expressing (UK) National Grid references should either study the marginal material of Ordnance Survey maps for an explanation and a worked example, or go to the relevant part of the OS website for a more detailed description. We determine these references to the 10metre level of accuracy even though they are shown (truncated) to the 100m level. By using 'wildcards' with the search facility it is possible to find towers using an even coarser grid reference.

Overhaul Year

When using the search facility, the details page will show - should we have it - an indication of the year in which the ring as a whole was most recently overhauled. In using the word 'overhaul', we do NOT see this as (for example) simply changing one or two bells from plain to modern bearings, but feel it to be more comprehensive yet without being too proscriptive about what qualifies and what does not. This is as far as we feel we can reasonably go towards providing any indication of the likely 'go' of the bells, which is a topic in which the capability of the ringer is also a relevant consideration!

Affiliation to Association, Guild, Society, etc ('affiliations')

As from November 2007, we have indicated those affiliations about which we know, have been told, have inferred from our own knowledge of the Exercise, or have ascertained by a search of the relevant websites. There can be none, one, or several affiliations in any particular case but, in general, we have not made any indication of such for 3-bell rings. We know that we will have not got these data 100% correct initially and so will happily amend any misattribution or add further entries as we are informed about them. We would prefer that notification to come from either an officer of the society or (even better) of the tower concerned.

This facility is envisaged as helping to find tower contact details when arranging visits, etc, especially where we know of no tower webpage to show.

Where possible, the society name shown also provides a link (a URL) pointing to that part of the CCCBR website where, or near where, there can be found an e-mail address for a principal officer and, commonly, a further link to that organisation's website. Those not showing as having a URL relate to a society whose details do not appear on the CCCBR website. (We feel that we cannot undertake the additional task of providing - and, more particularly, keeping up-to-date - URLs which point directly to a society website. Moreover, having this indirect linking increases the chance of accuracy as domain names are changed.)


We fully appreciate that there are bound to be continuing inaccuracies (and incompleteness) in this listing, but it is only by making it widely and easily available, and facilitating submission of amendments, that those infelicities can be minimised. Reporting bona fide corrections back to the compilers will make these pages - and the next printed edition of Dove - all the more dependable. Do please remember that our objective is to show as accurate data as is humanly possible - 'data quality' is paramount: so please only tell us about information in which you have complete confidence as regards to both its accuracy and that you can trace it back to a dependable primary source. This is an area of activity where mistranscriptions, for example, are not only common but all too easily perpetuated.

On the question of "absolute accuracy", readers should be aware of the fact that, although the details shown against any entry are the best we can obtain, some part (such as 'unringability') may actually be open to a degree of subjectivity. We see our task as being twofold: identifying precisely where rings of bells are located and their physical characteristics (all of which is essentially factual), together with additional information about the opportunities that may exist for ringing there. Ultimately, whether someone may - or may not - ring in any tower rests with the "proper authority" relating to the tower concerned. For a CofE (or CinW) church that authority is the incumbent, churchwardens, and PCC. Ringers should not assume that because a ring of bells exists that there is some concomitant right which allows anyone to ring them. Thus on occasion such authority may choose, for good reason, to deem a ring to be 'unringable' when others, who may be suitably competent, would advise to the contrary. For our part, we much prefer the situation to be described as accurately as possible rather than using a 'blanket term' such as 'unringable' when such is not strictly the case. It is for precisely that reason we have introduced other 'flags' to describe an installation, of which examples are 'ringing not currently permitted', and 'condition poor: ONLY chiming allowed'. When acting upon reported changes in ringing opportunities at any particular tower, therefore, it is our practice to give greatest weight to those who have some appropriate status with regard to the ring. Should we decide it necessary, we will attempt to make contact (usually through the relevant tower captain) with that proper authority - and in the meantime probably err on the side of caution. Having said all that, it is worth reiterating that our preference and aim is to show information that is as accurate and comprehensive as possible, and in all respects, and preferably not too short-term in nature.

Occasionally we have difficulty with being supplied 'corrections' that have come from someone who is well-intentioned as far as sharing information is concerned but actually does not know the entirety of the situation about an installation. We work on the basis that all data we are provided with is 'official', and that our task is in making it readily visible to the ringing community. Should there be any possible doubt that the information you supply to us may not actually be authoritative, then please make enquiries before telling us and also be quite explicit in that respect within your message.

Another difficulty arises for us with regard to tenor details. Here we do strive to locate information from such authoritative primary sources as there are in existence, wherever possible from foundry records, either directly or via the good offices of those who are known to us to carry out reputable research in that aspect of campanology.

Yet another difficulty is with people sending us 'advance information'. While such is helpful background knowledge, it does leave us with the problem of deciding just what part of an entry should be changed and when that change should be made. We'd prefer, for example, not to hear about anticipated practice night changes three weeks before the event (which then means we would have to keep a diary note of precisely when to make the change) but when they are actually imminent or even just have happened. It is an observed fact that circumstances sometimes change and the anticipated does not become reality!

It is wise, also, to bear in mind that ALL 'information' should be treated with due caution: rarely can we be 100% confident that an entry is 'absolutely accurate' in all respects. We rely on our informants, and they in turn often rely - possibly quite unwittingly - upon the same original source to corroborate it rather than a wholly independent one for that particular piece of information and without actually assessing the likely reliability - or unreliability - of the source depended upon. It is also worthwhile to make it clear that the terminology used within these pages is pertinent to that generally in use within the bellringing fraternity. So, for example, a tower that is described as 'unsafe' implies that the structure thereof has been deemed as not being capable of withstanding the forces (usually lateral) that are imposed upon it when the currently installed set of bells are rung full circle. It does not (necessarily) imply that there is danger of its collapse when - again for example - the locality experiences an earthquake.

Therefore, we particularly request that unless you are at least 100% certain of the "correction" that you do not let us know, for we have had many "corrections to corrections" putting the data back to its original value: and in such a case AT LEAST ONE of the "corrections" was wrong and then we have a significant task in ascertaining the true facts. It is far preferable to confine a submission to installations in which you have some personal involvement or, preferably, responsibility. We are also anxious NOT to receive information about future plans for work for, not infrequently, some unforeseen snag arises and the job doesn't get completed as envisaged or on the original timescale. It is almost a sine qua non that timescales slip beyond original hopes. So, details only about jobs actually completed, please, unless work has already started (making the bells effectively 'unringable') in which case it may be helpful to advise us of the fact and the anticipated completion date and we will show this as "restoration work under way". And, because these pages are frequently updated, before actually submitting any corrections do ensure that the current internet version is still "incorrect".

Those who report errors in our listings or seek to amend an entry should take note of the fact that a reference copy is normally kept of all letters and e-mail exchanges. Should it be the case that a subsequent enquirer takes issue with any amendment to an entry, it may be the case that previous correspondence will need to be produced to explain why and how and when the change occurred in what we show. So please bear in mind that others in the future may read what you have written and remember that it's wise to be temperate in exactly how you express yourself!

Please accept our thanks in advance for any amendment sent. We will briefly acknowledge its receipt and hopefully fully do so by means of an amended entry. We may need to ask you for the source of your "correction" in order to verify that the detail is more authoritative and up-to-date than that already shown, so please ensure that you identify yourself. It helps us if you please indicate your specific relationship to the tower concerned, and a telephone number is always helpful should there be any need to clarify an issue with you. Anonymous submissions will be ignored. If you have notified a correction and it does not appear, within say 2 weeks, please accept our apologies and be kind enough to send a reminder. If you do supply a revision and for some good reason it is intended not to include it (again recognising the caveats noted), a reply with an explanation can certainly be expected.

When there are corrections 'in the system' and waiting to be made, an upload will almost invariably take place no less frequently than once per month.

... and a final word if you have submitted a correction. Do please check, and do so promptly - once advised that your version will be included - that what does appear on the relevant AND newly uploaded Dove webpage is indeed as finally agreed between us. There may be good reason that we do not always accept your offering in its entirety or with precisely the wording you suggest, but we will inform and hopefully agree with you any significant differences. But a vital part in the whole process is making certain that what finally appears is not only as you intended but as correct and clear as possible. So please double check, and do come back to us if the intended result is not actually implemented!

My Favourites

My Favourites is a facility which allows the user to identify a subset of towers for later reference: we have a special Help page devoted to this facility.


On the Home page we show in the bottom left-hand corner an indication of just how much progress has been made with the pNBR work. While some of the categories are self-evident, it may help to elaborate on what we mean by "complete". "Fully complete" means that we have, and show, for ALL of the bells in the bells details table (irrespective of whether they form part of the ring or not) all of its exact weight, its diameter, the founder (not just a 'probable founder'), nominal, canon information, and its year of casting. (For bells cast before 1600 an approximate date of casting suffices.) The "ring complete" figure considers these criteria just for the bells that comprise the ring.


ALL WHO HAVE SUPPLIED INFORMATION are hereby gratefully thanked for their contributions, particularly those who have been mailing corrections since these pages first appeared on the internet. It is the goodwill that ringers throughout the world have ably demonstrated over the years that enables us to maintain the accuracy of what we show.

Availability of Raw Data

An export of the raw data used in the tower search facility is available for download and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. If you use the data in any application which is made generally available, you must give due acknowledgement that the data is provide by the Central Council.

The first line gives the various field names. Fields are delimited by a back-slash character. This can be read into a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. To accomplish this, open Excel without naming any spreadsheet. Then select File | Open and change the filetype to All Files. Select the downloaded file and change the delimiter from its default setting to Other and indicate \ as the delimiter. Make sure that column 1 is set to type Date, the rest to Text and are adjusted to be wide enough for all the data to be visible.

Other notes

1. Please note that we will not go to undue lengths to get any requested data to you. Should an attempt fail, say because an e-mail address is "protected", and the e-mail returned as "undeliverable" for some reason then no further effort will expended. So it is necessary to be careful in supplying a correctly typed, and fully working, address for information to be provided. Unfortunately, experience has shown that users having or those having e-mail addresses are not able - for technical reasons beyond our control - to use our forms for getting in touch with us.

2. Those who use the data within the file dove.txt should remember that the content of data fields will inevitably change, and even significantly so over a relatively short period of time. It is preferable to reload the data again from scratch on a periodic basis (or devise a mechanism by means of which changes can be recognised and assimilated), otherwise the version you create will rapidly become out of date and increasingly so as time passes. At the very least you should be aware of the date on which the data was last downloaded to your application. It is also possible, though likely to be a rare event, that fields may be eliminated, or others added, or fieldnames changed. As indicated above, comparison between the current version of a file record and its presentation details page should make clear the datum in question.

3. Beware of the fact that the content of the first field (a unique, "PrimaryKey" field) for any given entry has changed in the past because it was formerly used to sort entries. As from mid-January 2005, whenever that field has been modified in any way, an entry will have been placed in the detailed changes.txt file showing its former and current values and there will be an entry also in the newpks.txt file.

4. When someone is helpful enough to send us an 'update', it not only has to be 'vetted' (by us) for any glaring inconsistency with what is already on file within our database, but the webpages have to be re-built and uploaded to the internet. Only then can the submitter do their check to ensure that we have processed it all correctly and interpreted their amendment as was intended. This makes it extremely wise for 'the average user' not to react too quickly to very recent amendments and without giving all concerned sufficient opportunity to ensure as far as possible that no inadvertent error has crept in along the way.

5. We stress that all of the data is offered on an "as found" basis, and the number of fields, their content, and fieldnames may also change without notice. NO RESPONSIBILITY can be taken in regard of such changes nor indeed for the accuracy of the data presented.